Restricciones y diseño

Diego Rodríguez en su blog Metacool:

1. Cita del arquitecto Joshua Prince-Ramus:

'We're seeing constraints as opportunities. It's not like we're getting around the constraints. We're saying, “The project's just the constraints.” If we can solve the constraints, that's where the form will come, that's where the beauty will come, that's where the logic will come. And more likely than not, you can get it built, you can get it financed, you can get it on budget.'

2. Charles Eames en "Design Q&A":

Q. Does the creation of design admit constraint?
A. Design depends largely on constraints.
Q. What constraints?
A. The sum of all constraints. Here is one of the few effective keys to the design problem-the ability of the designer to recognize as many of the constraints as possible-his willingness and enthusiasm for working within these constraints-the constraints of price, of size, of strength, balance, of surface, of time, etc.; each problem has its own peculiar list.
Q. Does design obey laws?
A. Aren’t constraints enough?

My topic is the shift from ‘architect’ to ‘gardener’, where ‘architect’ stands for ‘someone who carries a full picture of the work before it is made’, to ‘gardener’ standing for ‘someone who plants seeds and waits to see exactly what will come up’. I will argue that today’s composer are more frequently ‘gardeners’ than ‘architects’ and, further, that the ‘composer as architect’ metaphor was a transitory historical blip.

Resumen. El concepto de “modelo Barcelona” se utiliza de forma dominante en círculos internacionales de urbanistas, arquitectos, geógrafos, sociólogos, políticos municipales y expertos en políticas culturales, para definir lo que podríamos llamar una estrategia de regeneración urbana referida a los profundos cambios, tanto socioeconómicos como urbanísticos, que la ciudad sufre desde la mitad de los años 70. El concepto del modelo Barcelona es positivo, alabatorio, y considera como un gran éxito tanto las resoluciones urbanísticas adoptadas en diseño y arquitectura, tenidas como de alta calidad formal y estética, como las políticas que las respaldan y el impacto de todo ello en la ciudadanía y en la economía de la ciudad. En este sentido, Barcelona y sus políticas institucionales se establecen como un buen ejemplo, como un modelo de principios y prácticas a seguir.

A. Cócola Gant (2011). El Barrio Gótico de Barcelona. De símbolo nacional a parque temático. Scripta Nova, Revista Electrónica de Geografía y Ciencias Sociales. Vol. XV

Resumen. El Barrio Gótico de Barcelona fue construido en las décadas centrales del siglo XX. De hecho, su nombre también es una creación moderna, ya que tradicionalmente el espacio era conocido como barrio de la Catedral. Aunque en teoría los monumentos históricos nos remiten a épocas pasadas, en muchos casos han sido fabricados recientemente. La medievalización del centro histórico de Barcelona transformó físicamente el barrio institucional de la ciudad, dotándolo de nuevos significados simbólicos y de una apariencia antigua que hasta entonces no poseía.

Pero si en un principio la monumentalización de la ciudad histórica fue un proyecto de la burguesía local con el fin de exhibir la arquitectura nacional catalana, en la práctica las obras sólo pudieron justificarse por los ingresos que generaría el nuevo turismo urbano, el cual gusta de contemplar edificios de apariencia antiguos, sean o no originales. Por lo tanto, el texto analiza el uso político del pasado y su posterior conversión en una mercancía cualquiera, enmarcando el análisis dentro del llamado «marketing urbano», cuyo objetivo es crear marcas con las ciudades para posicionarse en el mercado internacional que compite por la atracción de inversiones y turistas.

… Al actuar casi como antropólogos, queríamos considerar los nuevos dispositivos que habían desplazado a todo lo anterior y desarrollar un entramado dentro del cual se pudiese describir y entender esta nueva trama urbana.
Rem Koolhaas (marzo de 2010) en el prólogo de ”Sendas oníricas de Singapur. Retrato de una metrópolis potemkin … o treinta años de tabla rasa" Editorial Gustavo Gili (publicado originalmente en 1995 como parte de "S, M, L, XL")

… The assignment of dealing consequently with the flexible city contains two important dimensions. On one hand the exploring of opportunities for temporary use of both private and public space which have become obsolete. On the other hand the search for new forms of construction, urban planning and architecture where principles of change, movement, (dis)appearance or extensions are embedded. Our aim is to create a network of a wide range of professionals who are interested in dynamic urbanism.

… The real work of architecture that adapts and reflects this new mediated world is yet to come. A discussion about “social media and architecture” is still more likely to consider how architects can use Facebook—or Architizer—to market their work, rather than how social media changes our experience of it. And a conversation about “technology and architecture” is probably about parametric modeling, not about how the two spaces we inhabit—one physical, one virtual—might be pulled together. A world where we are all “alone together,” in Turkle’s formulation, is a haunting image of the future. But there remains the possibility of a new richness arriving along with our divided attention, an additional layer in our experience of the built world.
“Public spaces are always going to be sites of negotiation. They are not places, like your laptop screen, where you can do whatever you want,” David Benjamin, of The Living, told me. But what if our screens engaged in that conversation? If our building facades didn’t just communicate information to us (à la the Jumbotron), but we communicated back, communally? After all, what makes cities vital are their color and diversity, the wild mix of scales, even the noise and confusion. This has been the defining sensation of modernity, from the Parisian boulevard to the contemporary aerotropolis. Social media has the potential to amplify this quality, making people feel disoriented and overwhelmed—but also focused and inspired. Great cities have always done both, and architecture’s role has always been to help make sense of it all. It took Mies to show how the lowly industrial I-beam could be transmuted into something as grand and symbolically profound as the columns of a Greek temple. What architect will turn the networked screen into a chapel?

A hundred designers, 10 urban challenges, very little money, and no sleep. That’s the recipe for 72 Hour Urban Action, a three-day marathon for designers to improve their city. Founder Kerem Halbrecht first debuted the concept at the Bat-Yam Biennale of Landscape Urbanism in Israel in September, where 120 participants working in 10 teams got three days and three nights to solve problems in public spaces. “I wanted to challenge the common perception that creating change in public space is long and difficult, and to see if public space can respond to changing needs in real time,” he told The New York Times last year…

Sobre las burbujas inmobiliarias que forman las universidades en sus campus. Aunque esto sucede en EEUU y sus universidades tienen unas características muy diferentes a las españolas, ¿no es posible que en España esté sucediendo algo similar cuando buena parte de los proyectos de “excelencia”, “internacionalización” … son en realidad proyectos arquitectónicos?

… university presidents are enamored with flashy construction projects which are much easier to justify to boards than equitably-paid faculty or low tuition for students (indeed, both of these are at odds with the sort of mentality that Ho observes on Wall Street: employees are always disposable and any university that keeps tuition down must be failing to charge apporpriately for its services).* After a few years at a university, the building-enamored president moves on to bigger and better digs, leaving faculty to struggle to get grants to fill buildings that shouldn’t have been built in the first place.

As a byproduct, universities issue bonds and, so long as endownments keep flowing in, can service them. It’s a giant ponzi scheme with little of value for students and, as Harper’s described in a notorious graphic about the consequeneces of overbuilding in Brandeis (Brandeis has threatened a lawsuit and has accused Harper’s of slander and libel over this piece), can collapse precipitously during times of economic crisis. But while bonds were hot, Wall Street couldn’t have enough of them, so universities eagerly complied.    

Archinect: Venice #10: Street Training
London-based artist Lottie Child led a group of people, mostly children, who live and work around Via Garibaldi in Venice, in a Street Training session for architects and planners. Inverting educational hierarchies, with adult professionals being trained by children in imaginative responses to the built environment, the session explored the relations between the built infrastructure and the social infrastructure in terms of safety and joy.With less than 5 playgrounds in Venice, the children occupy the streets. Lottie initially embarked on her research by asking the questions, “How do you feel safe in the streets?” and “How do you feel joyful in the streets?” Many people had answers to the first question, as fear mediated their experiences, but only the children had ideas on strategies for joy. Lottie decided to apprentice herself to the children, and here she brings to us some of her research: joyfulness in the streets of Venice…

Archinect: Venice #10: Street Training

London-based artist Lottie Child led a group of people, mostly children, who live and work around Via Garibaldi in Venice, in a Street Training session for architects and planners. Inverting educational hierarchies, with adult professionals being trained by children in imaginative responses to the built environment, the session explored the relations between the built infrastructure and the social infrastructure in terms of safety and joy.

With less than 5 playgrounds in Venice, the children occupy the streets. Lottie initially embarked on her research by asking the questions, “How do you feel safe in the streets?” and “How do you feel joyful in the streets?” Many people had answers to the first question, as fear mediated their experiences, but only the children had ideas on strategies for joy. Lottie decided to apprentice herself to the children, and here she brings to us some of her research: joyfulness in the streets of Venice…

How to hack a z-rack - d.school news
… the “z-rack” is a mindful hack that has literally transformed the way we work.  Scott Doorley and George Kembel originally modified garment racks to create inexpensive (and plentiful) dry-erase surfaces to facilitate and capture the process of being visual with ideas.  The z-racks unintentionally became excellent tools for partitioning and creating team spaces.  They have become core tools in creating our teaching landscape.

How to hack a z-rack - d.school news

… the “z-rack” is a mindful hack that has literally transformed the way we work.  Scott Doorley and George Kembel originally modified garment racks to create inexpensive (and plentiful) dry-erase surfaces to facilitate and capture the process of being visual with ideas.  The z-racks unintentionally became excellent tools for partitioning and creating team spaces.  They have become core tools in creating our teaching landscape.